What is type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes:

The pancreas produces insulin in the body. The body cells insulin to control the sugar level in the blood. In type 2 diabetes, the human body does not respond to insulin. Due to the amount of glucose in the human blood increases. Due to this start many types of health problems to occur. Stress, Poor lifestyle, obesity, lack of sleep and blood pressure are the main reasons behind type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms of diabetes type 2:

1- Weight loss
2- Delayed wound healing
3- Fatigue and weakness
4- Excessive hunger and thirst
5- Frequent toilet visits
6- Itching on the skin
7- Having mood swings

Cause of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes develops through a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. While some are under control, such as diet and obesity, others, such as aging, gender and genetics, are not under control. Sleep deprivation has also been linked to type 2 diabetes. This is thought to be due to its effect on metabolism. The nutritional status of the mother during the development of the child in pregnancy may also play a role, which may result from an action caused by altered DNA methylation.

1. Life style

Lifestyle factors important for the development of type 2 diabetes include obesity (defined as a body weight index greater than 30), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization. Excess body fat is associated with 30 percent of cases in people of Chinese and Japanese ancestry, 60–80 percent in people of European and African ancestry, and 100 percent in Pima Indian and Pacific Islanders. Those who are not obese often have a high waist-high ratio.

life style diabetes

Higher amounts of sugar -sweetened drinks have also been linked to an increased risk. The type of fat in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fatty acids increasing risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats decreasing risk. Consuming high amounts of white rice also appears to play a role in increasing the risk. It is believed that 7 percent of cases are due to lack of exercise.

2. Genetics:

Most cases of diabetes involve multiple genes, each of which increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. If one identical twin has diabetes, the other has a more than 90 percent chance of developing diabetes in his lifetime, compared to 25–30 percent in non-identical siblings.

Genetics type 2 diabetes
There are very few cases of diabetes that result from an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic type diabetes or “other specific types of diabetes”). These include mature onset diabetes of youth (MODY), Donohue syndrome and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, among others. Mature onset of diabetes in youth contributes to 1–5 percent of all cases of diabetes in young people.


The onset of type 2 diabetes Archived 2020-06-07 at the Wayback Machine can be delayed or prevented through proper nutrition and regular exercise. Serious lifestyle measures can cut the risk in half. The benefits of exercise are unaffected by a person’s initial weight and the weight lost as a result of exercise.

Although evidence for benefit from dietary changes alone is limited, there is some evidence of a dietary intake of green leafy vegetables and some evidence of a benefit of limiting the consumption of sugary beverages.

Prevention type 2 diabetes
type 2 diabetes Prevention type 2 diabetes

Those with poor glucose tolerance Archived2020-06-16 at the Wayback Machine, diet and exercise alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose, may reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Lifestyle interventions are more effective than metformin.

Medicines/ Treatment:

There are several classes of anti-diabetic drugs available. Metamorphine is generally recommended as a first-line treatment, as there is some evidence that it reduces mortality. If metamorphine is not sufficient, another oral agent of another class may be used. Other classes of drugs include the following: sulfonylureas, non-sulfonylureas secretagogues, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, thiazoldinioids , glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs , and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors . Metamorphine should not be used in people who have severe kidney or liver problems.


Most people do not need insulin initially. When this is used, a longer-acting formulation is usually added at night, with the oral medication being continued. The dosage is then increased to be effective (to properly control the blood sugar level). When nocturnal insulin is insufficient, daily insulin may be given twice a day for better control. [6] Long-acting insulin, glargine and detemir, neutral protamine hedgehog (NPH) insulin but the cost of making these is significantly higher, as of 2010 it is not cost effective. For those who are pregnant, insulin is a better form of treatment.